Direction (Q. 1 - 10) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. The variety of life on Earth, its biological diversity is commonly referred to as biodiversity. The number of species of plants, animals, and micro organisms, the enormous diversity of genes in these species, the different ecosystems on the planet, such as deserts, rainforests and coral reefs are all part of a biologically diverse Earth. Biodiversity is not evenly distributed; rather it varies greatly across the globe as well as within regions. Among other factors, the diversity of all living things (biota) depends on temperature, precipitation, altitude, soils, geography and the presence of other species. The study of the spatial distribution of organisms, species, and ecosystems, is the science of biogeography. Diversity consistently measures higher in the tropics and in other localized regions and lower in Polar Regions generally. Rain forests that have had wet climates for a long time. Appropriate conservation and sustainable development strategies attempt to recognize this as being integral to any approach to preserving biodiversity. Almost all cultures have their roots in our biological diversity in some way or form. Declining biodiversity is therefore a concern for many reasons. It has long been feared that human activity is causing massive extinctions. Despite increased efforts at conservation, it has not been enough and biodiversity losses continue. The costs associated with deteriorating or vanishing ecosystems will be high. However, sustainable development and consumption would help avert ecological problems. Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play. For example, a larger number of plant species means a greater variety of crops; greater species diversity ensures natural sustainability for all life forms; and healthy ecosystems can better withstand and recover from a variety of disasters. There is now unequivocal evidence that biodiversity loss reduces the efficiency by which ecological communities capture biologically essential resources, produce biomass, decompose and recycle biologically essential nutrients. There is mounting evidence that biodiversity increases the stability of ecosystem functions through time. Diverse communities are more productive because they contain key species that have a large influence on productivity, and differences in functional traits among organisms increase total resource capture. The impacts of diversity loss on ecological processes might be sufficiently large to rival the impacts of many other global drivers of environmental change. Maintaining multiple ecosystem processes at multiple places and times requires higher levels of biodiversity than does a single process at a single place and time. It plays a part in regulating the chemistry of our atoms here and water supply. Biodiversity is directly involved in water purification, recycling nutrients and providing fertile soils. Experiments with controlled environments have shown that humans cannot easily build ecosystems to support human needs. And so, while we dominate this planet, we still need to preserve the diversity in wildlife. While there might be “survival of the fittest”within a given species, each species depends on the services provided by other species to ensure survival. It is a type of cooperation based on mutual survival.
1. Which of the following is an advantage of Biodiversity?
1) It provides plowable lands 2) It purifies water. 3) It protects ecosystem 4) All of the above 5) None of these
2. Find the correct statement on the basis of the given passage.
1) Biodiversity increases the stability of ecosystem.
2) Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life.
3) More than 60 per cent of the world's population depend on plants for their medicines.
4) Only 1 and 2 5) All of the above
3. What is meant by 'Survival of the fittest'?
1) A term that denotes that only the fittest organisms prevail.
2) The characteristics of the rarely fit members of a species.
3) When a person is not familiar with climate.
4) Both 1 and 2 5) None of these
4. What is/are the main cause of deteriorating ecosystem?
1) Due to water crisis. 2) Environmental degradation. 3) Population growth. 4) Frequent change in temperature. 5) None of these
5. Which of the following contradict (s) the facts as mentioned in the passage?
1) Sustainable development is about staying within the resources of the planet whilst improving the quality of human life and creating balance in nature.
2) The rapid extinction rates mean that it can take a long time for nature to recover.
3) The loss of natural resources is likely to cause multiple complex imbalances in ecosystem.
4) All of the above 5) None of these
Direction (Q. 6 -8) : Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the
1) Decisive 2) Vague 3) Distinct 4) Absolute 5) Manifest
1) Regular 2) Tenable 3) Discontinuous 4) Unceasing 5) Steady
Direction (Q.8 -10) : Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
1) Vast 2) Miniature 3) Insignificant 4) Titanic 5) Looped
1) Violate 2) Yield 3) Unfasten 4) Resist 5) Dodge
1) Elimination 2) Obsolescence 3) Destruction 4) Deflect 5) Absolut
1.4 , 2.4 , 3.1 , 4.2 , 5.1 , 6.2 , 7.3 , 8.1 , 9. 4 , 10.3