Directions (Q. 1-5):Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. To appreciate the challenge that India faces in generating adequate employment over the next three decades, it is useful to examine two scenarios for the worker population ratio (WPR), which is the ratio of workers to the population of men and women. In the first scenario, the WPR remains fixed at the rate estimated by the National Sample Survey in 2011-12 through 2040. In the second scenario, after 2015, the male WPR rises by 2.5% every five years, while the female WPR increases by 5% (due to the much lower current female WPR). Multiplying the WPR by the relevant population statistics gives a reasonable estimate of the number of men and women who might be in the job market up to 2040. The situation looks grim even if the WPR remains fixed. An additional 30 million jobs will need to be created between 2010 and 2015—which will not happen given the depressed economy and that only 2.7 million extra jobs were added between 2004-05 and 2009-10. A s it stands today, India has neither the growth nor the required institutional flexibility to create 6 million extra jobs per year up to 2015 and over 5 million per year from 2015 to 2025. Things get worse under the second scenario, which incorporates the more realistic assumption that, armed with a better education, the percentage of men and women joining the labour force will be higher. Under this setting, India will need to find 44 million additional jobs between 2015 and 2020 at an annual rate of a little less than 9 million. These numbers are not exact, but they underscore the urgent need to create much wider employment in the coming years. There are those who believe that India can never hope to achieve significantly higher employment without the freedom to fire. However, India has reasonable labour market flexibility. The vast unorganized sector, which accounts for more than 90% of India’s approximately 470 million workers, has no entry or exit barriers. Moreover, the legal constraints that allegedly prevent extra hiring in the organized sector—such as sections 25(N) and 25(O) of the Industrial Disputes Act, 1947, or provisions of the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970—are often overstated. No doubt creating legal flexibility can help. But the barriers to employment growth lie in an environment that is increasingly cramping the country’s growth potential. For example the telecom industry. On 2 February 2012, the Supreme Court of India cancelled 122 mobile telecom licenses allegedly on account of rigging to generate below-market prices. Since then, it has been virtually impossible for the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India and the department of telecommunications to allot additional permits and spectrum. An employment-intensive sector, the slowdown has reduced its growth and its potential for creating additional jobs. There’s a long list of sectors with high employment elasticity that have slowed on account of lower growth as well as judiciary and regulatory overreach.
1. Why does the author lay emphasis on employment opportunity ?
1) India is facing an alarming situation of widespread unemployment.
2) A large number of people will be employed in coming years.
3) In recent years the problem has become a cause for grave concern as it has started threatening our economic and social fibre.
4) Both 2 and 3
5) All of the above
2. What, according to the author, is/are the factors responsible for employment creation ?
1) Entrepreneurship is a critical factor in the growth of Indian economy.
2) Economic policies of India.
3) Increasing rate of literacy.
4) All of the above
5) None of these
3. Which of the following is an adverse impact of unemployment? Select the most appropriate option in the context of the given passage ?
1) Over a prolonged period of time, this can become quite problematic for rural population.
2) The disruptive element of unemployment can leave tremendously powerful scars on a man's psyche.
3) On a social level, unemployment results in a greater distrust on government.
4) Unemployment can cause a great deal of social stress in terms of questioning job status on a mass scales, which can trigger a drop in consumer spending causing less economic growth.
5) All of the above
4. Which of the following is possibly the most appropriate title for the passage ?
1) Employment vs. Unemployment.
2) Factors affecting employment in India.
3) Problem of tomorrow's India.
4) Employing India.
5) Who creates job ?
5. Which of the following statement is definitely true as given in the passage ?
1) The decline in elasticity has been truly alarming in certain sectors.
2) Across the world, incremental employment demand is slowing quite significantly.
3) The current employment situation will not improve, and India will never generate a demand for labor that is even vaguely in line with its future supply.
4) The cause of unemployment is poverty.
5) None of these
Direction (6 – 8) :Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage-
1) Sunny 2) Encouraging 3) Horrible 4) Hopeless 5) Somber
1) Restraining 2) Hampering 3) Objecting 4) Promoting 5) Confining
1) Opportunity 2) Adaptability 3) Glaring 4) Flexibility 5) Rigidity
Direction (9–10) : Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage-
1) Supposedly 2) Unlikely 3) Confining 4) Improbably 5) Extraordinarily
1) Disperse 2) Disconnect 3) Include 4) Merge 5) Absorb
1.3, 2.1 , 3.4 , 4.3 , 5.5 , 6.2 , 7.4 , 8.5 , 9.1 , 10.3