Directions (Q. 1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Sanitation promotes health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage waste water. These hazards can be physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems include human and solid wastes, domestic wastewater, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions, simple technologies e.g. septic tanks, or even by personal hygiene practices e.g. simple hand washing with soap. In fact, it is essential for children to survive, grow and develop into healthy and fulfilled citizens of the world. In the broader context, UNICEF’s activities in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. UNICEF’s long standing support for improving water supply, sanitation and hygiene stems from a firm conviction and based on sound evidence that these are central to ensuring the rights of children. Apart from these adequate,well-maintained water supply and sanitation facilities in schools encourage children to attend school regularly and help t hem achieve their educational goals. Inadequate water supply and sanitation in schools are health hazards and affect school attendance, retention and educational performance. Adolescent girls are especially vulnerable to dropping out, as many are reluctant to continue their schooling because toilet facilities are not safe and somewhere are not available. In rural area women and girls face a loss of personal dignity and safety risk if there is no toilet at home.
Some other important factors which cannot be ignored- water supply and sanitation in our country con tinue to be inadequate, despite longstanding efforts by the various levels of government and communities at improving coverage. The level of investment in water and sanitation, albeit low by international standards, has increased during the 2000s. Access has also increased significantly. The share of Indians with access to improved sources of water has increased significantly, while local government institutions faced lack of the financial resources to carry out their functions. Thus the lack of adequate sanitation and safe water has significant negative health impacts including diarrhoea.
Another factor is dependency of people on on-site sanitation facilities. Recently, access to on-site sanitation has increased in both rural and urban areas. In rural areas, total sanitation has been successful .In ur ban areas; a good practice is the Slum Sanitation Program in Mumbai that has provided access to sanitation for a quarter million slum dwellers. In Delhi the sewerage network has lacked maintenance over the years. 2.5 Billion People in the world that defecate openly, some 665 million live in India. This is of greater concern as 88% of deaths from diarrhea occur because of unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene.
Therefore we can say that Lack of access to adequate sanitation is a huge problem in India. According to UNICEF, about 50% of the country’s population (approximately 638 million people) resort to open defecation. Not only is this a serious health hazard, diarrhea caused by lack of sanitation is a leading cause of death, but there are other problems as well. For example, the dropout rates of girls in schools are directly related to the unavailability of toilets. Therefore, improving sanitation will also improve the living and economic conditions of the rural poor.
1. According to the author, what is/are the factors responsible for absenteeism of children in school?
1) due to safety risk 2) Inadequate water supply 3) lack of sanitation facilities 4) both 1 and 3 5) all of the above
2. Which of the following disease is caused by lack of sanitation?
1) Diarrhea 2) Cancer 3) Tuberculosis 4) Viral fever 5) None of these
3. According to the author, why special attention and efforts are required for improving status of sanitation India?
1) The level of investment in sanitation is low.
2) It has negative health impacts.
3) Rural people, especially children and girls are dropping out from their schools.
4) It encourages many diseases.
5) All of the above.
4. Which of the following is definitely False in the context of the passage?
1) State government have lack of financial resource
2) Government of India have made a comprehensive plan for sanitation.
3) A sanitation program has been organized in Mumbai from slum dwellers.
4) Both 1 & 2 5) None of these
5. By what percentage of deaths are caused by Diarrhea?
1) 2.5% billion people in the world. 2) 66.5% million people 3) 88% of death
4) 63.8% million people 5) None of these
Direction (Q. 6-8): Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
1) Protected 2) Enduring 3) Ready 4) Remedy 5) Pubescence
1) Outlet 2) Egress 3) Axis 4) Trunk 5) Approach
1) Although 2) Unsusceptible 3) Measure 4) Drove 5) Grievous
Direction (9-10): Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
1) Endangerment 2) Safety 3) Admitting 4) Meted out 5) Hostile
1) Avenue 2) Sludge 3) Evaluation 4) Distrust 5) Mitigate
1.5 , 2.1 , 3.5 , 4.2 , 5.3 , 6.3, 7.5, 8.1 , 9.2 , 10.4