Directions (Q. 1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Wastes are materials that are not prime products for which the initial user has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded. There are various types of waste material- Agricultural waste , Animal by-products, Household, Human waste ( Sewage sludge), Industrial waste, Inorganic waste , Mineral waste, Nuclear waste, Organic waste, Packaging waste, Radioactive waste, and Solid wastes. These wastes can be transformed in other useful products, this process is known as Waste management. In other words waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is a distinct practice from resource recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources. All waste materials, whether they are solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive fall within the remit of waste management. Waste management practices can differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management of non-hazardous waste residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator subject to local, national or international authorities. Methods of disposal are Landfill, Incineration, Recycling, Sustainability, Biological reprocessing, Energy recovery and Resource recovery methods. Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty beverage containers. Recoverable materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recovered through composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter.
The management of waste is a key component in a business ability to maintaining ISO14001 accreditation. Companies are encouraged to improve their environmental efficiencies each year by eliminating waste through resource recovery practices, which are sustainability-related activities. One way to do this is by shifting away from waste management to resource recovery practices like recycling materials such as glass, food scraps, paper and cardboard, plastic bottles and metal. Many companies have done brilliant work in this field over the past few years, leading the way in the development and manufacture of these types of technologies. Some companies have recently launched a new MIR (Medium Infra-red) sorter which sorts paper according to its quality, and has improved its NIR (Near Infra-red) system to sort wood into category A and category B.Companies are also working on a research project to the development of new machines and sorting technologies . So we can expect to see even greater things in future.
1. Which of the following best define waste management?
1) Is the only collection of waste material.
2) A management of natural resources.
3) A process of transformation of prime products in daily needs product.
4) A process of reuse of all type of material.
5) None of these
2. In which of the following product, a Solid organic wastes can be converted?
1) Residue 2) In liquid 3) In food scraps 4) In gaseous products 5) Both 1 and 4
3. Which of the following is not a method of disposal in the context of the passage?
1) Incineration 2) recycling 3) Biological reprocessing 4) Residuals 5) None of these
4. What is the main objective of waste management?
1) To develop different practices for the extraction of raw materials.
2) Focus on recycling materials.
3) To collect, transport, dispose and manage the waste.
4) All of the the above.
5) None of these
5. Who is responsible for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste?
1) Local authorities. 2) National authorities 3) International authorities 4) Both 2 and 3 5) All of the above
Directions (Q. 6-8): Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as sed in
1) Retain 2) Transfer 3) Refrain 4) Tenure 5) Strain
1) Cremation 2) Vulnerable 3) Inevitable 4) Noxious 5) Sludge
1) Surplus 2) Debris 3) Junk 4) Core 5) Base
Direction (9-10): Choose the word which is most nearly the MOST OPPOSITE in meaning as the word printed in bold as sed in the passage.
1) Eradication 2) Inhalation 3) Addition 4) Sluggished 5) Distillation
1) Rushed 2) Necessity 3) Shavings 4) Disapproval 5) Credentials
1.5 , 2.5, 3.4, 4.3 , 5.5 , 6.2, .1, 8.2 , 9. 3 , 10.4