Direction (Q. 1 - 10) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
India, known for its rich heritage of biological diversity, has so far documented over 91,200 specie s of animals and 45,500 species of plants in its ten bio-geographic regions. Besides, it is recognized as one of the eight V avilovian centres of origin and diversity of crop plants, having more than 300 wild ancestors and close relatives of cultivated plants, which are still evolving under natural conditions. India is also a vast repository of Traditional Knowledge (TK) associated with biological resources. India ranks among the top ten species-rich nations and shows high endemism. India has four global biodiversity hot spots (Eastern Himalaya, Indo-Burma, Western Ghats and Sri Lanka, and Sunderland). The varied edaphic, climatic and topographic conditions and years of geological stability have resulted in a wide range of ecosystems and habitats such as forests, grasslands, wetlands, deserts, and coastal and marine ecosystem. Inventories of faunal diversity in India are being progressively updated and analysed with several new discoveries. So far, nearly 91,212 of faunal species (7.43% of the world’s faunal species) have been recorded in the country. Endemic rich Indian fauna is manifested most prominently in Amphibia (61.2%) and Reptilia (47%). Likewise, Indian fish fauna includes two endemic families and 127 monotypic genera. As per the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List (2008), India has 413 globally threatened faunal species, which is approximately 4.9% of the world’s total number of threatened faunal species. Continuous surveys and explorations have added new discoveries – 41 plant species in 2007 by Botanical Survey of India (BSI) alone. The unique features of the plant diversity, among others, include 60 monotypic families and over 6000 endemic species. Recent estimates indicate the presence of over 256 globally threatened plant species in India. Likewise, India’s contribution to crop biodiversity has been impressive with repositories of over 50,000 varieties of rice, 5,000 of sorghum, 1,000 varieties of mango, etc. The National Gene bank, primarily responsible for ex-situ conservation of unique germ plasm on long-term basis, holds 3,66,933 unique accessions of plant genetic resources. India is also endowed with vast and diverse forms of domesticated animal genetic resources, e.g., cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, camel, horse, donkey, yak, duck, goose, quail, etc. Besides, a rich diversity of wild relatives of domesticated animals exists here. The molecular characterization has been undertaken so far only in a few animals such as cattle, sheep, pig and poultry, using internationally recommended DNA markers. India, endowed with vast inland and marine bio resources, is the third largest producer of fish in the world. A database on 2,182 fishes found in Indian waters has been developed, which includes 327 fresh water species listed in IUCN threat categories and 192 endemic fishes. A macro level fish occurrence map of India has been prepared and DNA barcodes of 100 Indian marine fish species developed.
India’s rich wildlife bio resources also offer numerous opportunities for ensuring livelihood security and development of wildlife based small enterprises. Nevada Wildlife Action Plan (NWAP) duly recognizes the importance of people’s support for wildlife conservation and calls for promoting ecotourism that primarily involves and benefits local communities. In this context, successes in implementing community oriented wildlife based tourism in states like Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand, etc., is noteworthy. Similarly, National Commission on Agriculture, Tribal Co-operative Marketing Development Federation, Girijan Co-operative Corporation in Andhra Pradesh, Adivasi Multipurpose Societies has significantly contributed in promoting and harnessing the economic potential of NTFPs and improvement in the economic status of poor NTFP collectors.
1. Which among the following is the closest to the meaning of 'Biodiversity' ?
1) A scientific term which is used to describe the variety of life, the sum total of the Earth's living resources.
2) Its only living organisms of plant species.
3) It's related to some level of material wealth.
4) All of the above 5) None of these
2. What actions should be taken to conserve biodiversity ?
1) Development schemes should be realigned to provide biodiversity related benefits.
2) There is need of sustainable utilisation of biodiversity resources.
3) Water supply should be increased.
4) Both 1 and 2
5) None of these
3. Which of the following is not a benefit of NWAP (Nevada Wild Life Action Plan) ?
1) Habitat to benefit local communities.
2) It is a progressive blue print for wildlife conservation.
3) It may benefit from a changing climate and cloud expands their range.
4) Both 1 and 2
5) None of these
4. Which components of biodiversity is most important ?
1) The relative abundance of comparatively limited set of natural resources.
2) Special habitats.
3) Tree and vegetation species composition.
4) Wildlife trees.
5) All of the above
5. Consider the following statements :
A) Biological diversity is the immense variety and richness of life on the earth.
B) The Nevada Wildlife Action Plan (NWAP) was a team effort of people in every sense. Which among the above statement is/are correct as per the passage ?
1) Only A 2) Only B 3) Either A or B 4) Both A and B 5) None of these
Direction (Q. 16 – 18) : Choose the word which is most SIMILAR in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
1) Genus 2) Representative 3) Drainage 4) Edifice 5) Warehouse
1) Related 2) Orphic 3) Enriched 4) Safe 5) Supplied
1) Rather 2) Graced 3) Texture 4) Microscopic 5) Vault
Direction (Q.9 –10) : Choose the word which is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning as the word printed in bold as
used in the passage.
1) Unimportant 2) Minimal 3) Consequential 4) Unspoiled 5) Concerned
1) Resources 2) Releasing 3) Noticeable 4) Splash 5) Observable
1.1 , 2.4 , 3.4 , 4.5, 5.4, 6.5 , 7.3, 8.4 , 9. 1 , 10.2