Although John Wisdom’s writings in philosophy show clearly the influence of Wittgenstein, they nevertheless also display a (1) originality. Despite the (2) and difficulty of his style, a careful reading of Wisdom is seldom (3). He is a unique kind of genius in philosophy.
This essay is an excellent example of Wisdom’s repeated attempts to ( 4) the ultimate bases of philosophical perplexity. A great deal of the time Wisdom is ( 5) interested in finding out why metaphysicians f eel ( 6 ) to utter such strange sentences (e.g. “Time is unreal”, There are no material
things”, etc). According to Wisdom, such sentences are both false (and perhaps meaningless) and yet (7). Even more than Wittgenstein, Wisdom has stressed the “therapeutic” conception of philosophy, a view that comes out clearly in this essay where he emphasizes the analogy between philosophical and neurotic distress (8) them with other kinds of problems. The reader who is interested in gaining a fuller (9) with Wisdom’s thought is referred to his famous article “Gods in Philosophy and Psycho-analysis”. Other Minds is Wisdom’s most (10) discussion of a single topic and in many ways his finest work.
1. 1) concise 2) virtual 3) marked
4) limited 5) relative
2. 1) individuality 2) novelty
3) originality 4) complexity
3. 1) unprofitable 2) useful
3) advantageous 4) unreliable
4. 1) jettison 2) delimit
3) augment 4) fortify
5. 1) admirably 2) primarily
3) inadvertently 4) reluctantly
6. 1) depressed 2) confined
3) alluded 4) compelled
7. 1) illuminating 2) damaging
3) confusing 4) critical
8. 1) compelling 2) associating
3) contrasting 4) describing
9. 1) comparison 2) analysis
3) agreement 4) elaboration
10. 1) projected 2) sustained
3) prolonged 4) prolific
Perplexity = confusion; t he stat e of being
confused or worried
Metaphysics = the branch of philosophy dealing
with the nature of existence, truth and knowledge
Utter = to say something; t o express
something in speech.
Therapeutic = of or connected with healing; having a good general effect on the body or the mind
Neurotic = having or showing an abnormal anxiety or obsession about
something; caused by or suffering from a mental illness that causes depression or abnormal behaviour
Concise = brief
Virtual = almost or nearly the thing described, but not completely.
Jettison = to abandon or reject something that is not wanted.
Augment = to make something larger in number or size; to increase something
Fortify = to make somebody feed stronger, braver etc.
Explore = to examine something thoroughly in order to test it or found out about it.
Inadvertent = not done deliberately or intentionally
Reluctant = unwilling and therefore slow to act, agree etc.
Allude = to mention somebody/something briefly or indirectly.
Adapt = to make something suitable for a new use situation etc.
Acquaintance = slight knowledge of something
Prolong = to make something last longer; to extend something
Prolific = producing many works.
1. 3 2. 4 3. 1 4. 5 5. 2
6. 4 7. 1 8. 2 9. 5 10. 3